A prospective study was conducted to evaluate azithromycin in combination with pyrimethamine for treatment of acute Toxoplasma encephalitis in patients with AIDS. Of the 14 patients given 75 mg pyrimethamine and 500 mg azithromycin daily for four weeks, eight were evaluable for clinical response. Five responded favorably, one had an intermediate response and two an unfavorable response. Of the nine patients evaluable for radiological response, six responded favorably, and three had an intermediate response. Eleven adverse events occurred in nine patients: rash (n = 5), abnormal liver function (n = 2), vomiting (n = 3) and hypoacousia (n = 1). This pilot study suggests that the combination of pyrimethamine and azithromycin may be further investigated and that the optimal dosage of azithromycin has yet to be determined.