Thirty patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma were treated with intravenous cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (CAP) chemotherapy, a combination with proven efficacy against ovarian carcinoma. Nineteen patients were given CAP as an adjuvant soon after surgery. Eleven patients were treated after recurrence or failure of other first-line therapy. Of the patients treated adjuvantly, 11 (58%) were alive without evidence of disease with a median follow-up of 24 months. Eight patients (42%), all with metastatic disease at diagnosis, were dead of disease (DOD) with a median survival of 14 months. In the salvage group, all patients were DOD with a median survival of 21 months from diagnosis and a median survival from initiation of CAP of 7 months. Toxicity was observed in all patients, and there was one treatment-related death from cardiotoxicity. In the salvage group there were two partial responses and one complete response (response rate = 27%). We conclude that intravenous CAP was ineffective in the treatment of metastatic or recurrent uterine papillary serious carcinoma, but deserves study as an adjuvant in patients without metastatic or with only microscopic extrauterine disease.