Results of two studies of the effects of 2 to 3 hours of kangaroo care (KC), one a randomized trial of 25 premature infants in open-air cribs and the other a pilot of 6 premature infants who were at least 24 hours postextubation, who were cared for in incubators are reviewed. Both studies incorporated a pretest/posttest control group design. Heart rate and abdominal skin temperature rose for KC infants during KC. Heat loss did not occur during KC, and infants slept more during KC. Kangaroo care had a comforting effect on infants and their mothers. Apnea and periodic breathing episodes dropped during KC for incubator infants. Suggestions and guidelines for selection of infants and practice based on these studies are presented.