Outcomes of pregnancies from 115 female kidney transplant recipients maintained on cyclosporine before and during pregnancy were obtained from questionnaires, hospital records, and telephone interviews. The mean age of conception was 29 years with a mean transplant interval of 2.2 years. There were 156 outcomes (2 sets of twins): ectopic 1%, therapeutic abortion 12%, miscarriage 16%, stillborn 2.6%, live birth 68.6%. The incidence of prematurity (< 37 weeks) was 56%, and that of low birthweight (< 2500 g) 49.5%. Complications occurred in 21.7% of newborns, but with only 1 neonatal death. Liveborn infants had a mean gestational age of 35.6 weeks (term 37-42 weeks) and a mean birthweight of 2407 g. The incidence of drug-treated hypertension prior to pregnancy was 51.7%; of diabetes prior to pregnancy, 11.7%; of preeclampsia, 24.8%; and of rejection during pregnancy or within 3 months postdelivery 14.5%. When infants born to women with or without a given risk factor were compared, mothers with pregnancy drug-treated hypertension had significantly lower-birth-weight infants (2250 vs. 2603 g, P = 0.028 by Wilcoxon). Similarly, mothers with prepregnancy creatinine > or = 1.5 mg/dl had smaller infants (2090 vs. 2505 g, P = 0.031 by Wilcoxon). There was a trend toward lower birth-weight in infants of diabetic recipients. Of 107 recipients interviewed, 12(11%) experienced graft loss, 8 associated with graft dysfunction or rejection during pregnancy. There was 1 graft loss during pregnancy due to rejection and 8 grafts were lost within 2 years of the pregnancy. There was one maternal death 4.3 years postpregnancy. For the 8 recipients who lost their graft within 2 years of pregnancy, outcomes included 1 miscarriage and 7 live births. The 7 live births had a mean gestational age of 35.7 weeks and a mean birth-weight of 2194 g. Five of 8 recipients who had graft loss within 2 years of pregnancy were in the drug-treated hypertensive group. Prepregnancy factors that appear to increase the risk to the newborn of a female kidney transplant recipient include maternal drug-treated hypertension, diabetes, and serum creatinine > or = 1.5 mg/dl. More data are needed before specific prepregnancy predictors for maternal graft loss can be determined in this population.