The chronic and progressive nature of multiple sclerosis (MS) often excludes patients from neuropsychological treatment. At the Multiple Sclerosis Rehabilitation Hospital, Haslev, 40 patients with mild to moderate cognitive and behavioral impairment associated with MS were randomized to either specific cognitive treatment (20 pts) by direct training, compensatory strategies and neuropsychotherapy, or to non-specific, deliberately diffuse mental stimulation (20 pts). Treatment was for a mean of 46 days. The effects of treatment were evaluated by neuropsychological tests before treatment, immediately after treatment (short-term effects) and 6 months later (long-term effects). After short-term treatment, effects on cognitive measures were not convincing, but on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) the specific cognitive treatment group reported significantly less depression. After 6 months only this group showed an effect, since the visuo-spatial memory was improved. However, the depression ratings (BDI) were almost maintained from the short-term level. Interestingly, the non-specific treatment group rated themselves as significantly more depressed. Conclusively, it is worth while to offer specific neuropsychological treatment to MS patients with cognitive and behavioral dysfunction.