Addition of p-nitrophenol and UDP-glucuronic acid to rat hepatic microsomes enhanced the MgATP-stimulated Ca2+ sequestration. This stimulatory effect was more explicit in the presence of the activator of glucuronidation, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. The stimulation of Ca2+ uptake was dependent on the p-nitrophenol concentration and showed a good correlation with the rate of p-nitrophenol glucuronidation. The stimulation of Ca2+ sequestration was probably due to its coaccumulation with the intraluminar Pi originated during glucuronidation. The increase in extravesicular osmolarity due to the addition of UDP-glucuronic acid to microsomes resuspended in an hyposmotic medium caused a rapid and prolonged shrinking as revealed by light-scattering measurements. This indicates a poor permeability of microsomal membrane to UDP-glucuronic acid. The subsequent addition of the pore-forming compound alamethicin resulted in an immediate swelling of vesicles indicating a rapid entry of UDP-glucuronic acid. Alamethicin also caused an about 15-fold increase in p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity. These results support the hypothesis of the intravesicular compartmentation of the microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase catalytic site.