The clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of 306 osteoblastomas were analyzed. Seventy-five were Mayo Clinic cases and 231 were from consultation files. Males outnumbered females two to one. The age range was 6 months to 75 years (mean age, 20.4 years). The vertebral column including the sacrum was the most frequent site (32%). Pain was the usual complaint and neurologic findings were associated with vertebral tumors. Although most tumors were well circumscribed, cortical expansion and destruction were common radiographic findings (39%), and 12% had features suggestive of malignancy. Large, epithelioid osteoblasts were seen in 24% and were the predominant cellular element in 10%. A distinctive epithelioid multifocal pattern was recognized. Recurrence rates were 16% (Mayo Clinic cases) and 21% (consultation cases). Tumors involving the central neuraxis were associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Aggressive behavior is within the biologic spectrum of osteoblastomas, and histopathology alone does not appear to be a reliable predictor of aggressiveness. The most important differential diagnosis is osteosarcoma.