The prevalence of food allergy and intolerance (FA/FI) was studied in a random sample (n = 1483) of the Dutch adult population. First, the self-reported FA/FI reactions were investigated by questionnaire. Subsequently, in a clinical follow-up study, it was determined in how many cases this self-reported FA/FI could be objectively confirmed by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. More than 10% of the population (12.4%) reported FA/FI to specific food(s). Of the 144 subjects potentially available for the clinical follow-up study, 73 completed the whole protocol. In 12 subjects FA/FI could be confirmed by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. This indicates a minimum prevalence of FA/FI in the population of 0.8% (12 of 1483). Assuming that FA/FI is equal among participants, nonparticipants, and dropouts, the prevalence of FA/FI in the Dutch adult population is estimated to be 2.4%. The food (ingredients) involved included pork, white wine, and menthol. Two persons reacted to additives. In three persons glucose intolerance was observed. However, these specific intolerances probably do not reflect the distribution in the general population because the study population formed an extremely heterogeneous group, both with regard to the offending foods and the symptoms. The majority of the subjects had no serious complaints that required medical advice. We conclude that there is a gap between self-reported FA/FI and FA/FI that can be objectively confirmed by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge.