With in vivo 1H-MRS resonances of several metabolites were simultaneously measured in cerebral gliomas and adjacent normal brain. 15 patients with inoperable brain gliomas all histologically verified were monitored with 1H-MRS and MRI before and after radiotherapy. 11 patients were evaluable. 1H-MRS technique evolved from single volume measurements to one dimensional and two dimensional 1H spectroscopic imaging. In all patients N-acetyl-aspartate signals were decreased in tumour areas compared to the normal brain hemisphere. No recovery was seen after radiotherapy. Choline signals were increased in tumour margins of high grade gliomas and more diffusely in low grade gliomas. In 5 patients the choline resonance decreased after radiotherapy, accompanied by a shrinkage of tumour diameter on MRI. Lactate signals were present in high grade and unspecified astrocytomas and absent in most low grade gliomas. In 3 patients the lactate signal disappeared after radiotherapy. These observations indicate the feasibility of 1H-MRS in monitoring metabolic responses on radiotherapy of brain gliomas.