Careful monitoring and proper adjustments of insulin and caloric intake allow the diabetic athlete to participate safely and successfully in almost any activity. Close interaction between the patient, physician, dietitian, or diabetic team is essential to allowing safe participation for the diabetic athlete. Physical exercise has long been considered beneficial in the treatment of both type I and type II diabetics. Improved self-image, maintenance of ideal body weight, and decreased hypertension and lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors are readily achievable by the diabetic who regularly exercises. Improved glycemic control has not been proved to be a long-term benefit of regular exercise, and this issue will remain controversial in the future. The practicing physician should understand clearly the metabolic responses to exercise in both normal and diabetic patients. The physician should be skilled in providing proper advice regarding exercise for all diabetic patients.