The three-dimensional structure of prostaglandin H2 synthase-1, an integral membrane protein, has been determined at 3.5 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. This bifunctional enzyme comprises three independent folding units: an epidermal growth factor domain, a membrane-binding motif and an enzymatic domain. Two adjacent but spatially distinct active sites were found for its haem-dependent peroxidase and cyclooxygenase activities. The cyclooxygenase active site is created by a long, hydrophobic channel that is the site of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug binding. The conformation of the membrane-binding motif strongly suggests that the enzyme integrates into only one leaflet of the lipid bilayer and is thus a monotopic membrane protein.