Smoking cessation in pregnancy. Intervention among heavy smokers

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1994 Mar;73(3):215-9. doi: 10.3109/00016349409023442.


Objective: To investigate the effects of a low cost multicomponent intervention program among pregnant heavy smokers.

Design: A randomized controlled experimental trial.

Setting: The National Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Subjects: 104 pregnant women smoking 10 cigarettes or more daily at the time of routine ultrasound screening around the 18th week of pregnancy.

Intervention: Around the 18th week of gestation the women received information about the dangers of smoking in pregnancy together with a self-help manual. The manual was developed especially for pregnant women to aid smoking cessation during a 10 day program. A control ultrasound was performed around the 32nd week of pregnancy. Two encouraging reminders were mailed to them before and after the control ultrasound.

Main outcome measures: Changes in smoking pattern were investigated at delivery time. Smoking cessation, reduction, increase and no change in smoking consumption was registered.

Results: 20% stopped smoking and 65% reduced their smoking in the intervention group compared to 4% and 38% respectively in the control group. 11% in the intervention group did not change their smoking habit and 4% increased their consumption compared to 36% and 22% respectively in the control group. The differences were highly significant.

Conclusion: This low cost multiple intervention model seems more effective than other intervention models investigated in Norway. The resources invested are probably within the limits of the common pregnancy health care.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Health Education
  • Humans
  • Norway / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking Cessation*
  • Ultrasonography, Prenatal