The phylogeny of bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrobacter was investigated by sequencing the whole 16S rRNA gene. The average level of similarity for the three Nitrobacter strains examined was high (99.2%), and the similarity level between Nitrobacter winogradskyi and Nitrobacter sp. strain LL, which represent two different genomic species, was even higher (99.6%). When all of the Nitrobacter strains and their phylogenetic neighbors Bradyrhizobium and Rhodopseudomonas species were considered, the average similarity level was 98.1%. When complete sequences were used, Nitrobacter hamburgensis clustered with the two other Nitrobacter strains, while this was not the case when partial sequences were used. The two Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains examined exhibited a low similarity level (97.6%) and were not clustered.