Imaging investigation of the pediatric central nervous system may be considered in terms of structural imaging and functional imaging. Established structural imaging modalities include ultrasonography, radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid imaging (eg, myelography), and angiography. Functional imaging technologies include single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and magnetic resonance perfusion imaging. Furthermore, more recent advances in computer software now allow the superimposed display of separate imaging modalities using image fusion techniques. This technique allows the superimposition of structural imaging data with functional imaging data, eg, SPECT and MRI, or the fusion of structural imaging modalities, eg, computed tomography and MRI. In this respect, current practical and investigative applications of structural and functional imaging of the pediatric central nervous system are reviewed.