Serum antibodies IgA, IgG, and IgM against gliadin, ovalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin were analyzed at the time of 228 small bowel biopsies in 116 celiac children. These were compared to the antibody levels at the time of biopsies performed in 199 children, where the biopsy discarded a clinical suspicion of celiac disease. For antibodies against gliadin, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and diffusion-in-gel (DIG)-ELISA methods were compared. It was found that the combined information from IgA and IgG antigliadin antibodies gave the highest specificity (94%) and sensitivity (89%). The antibody responses to food antigens decreased with age in both celiac and reference children. The ELISA and DIG-ELISA methods gave comparable results and were equally efficient.