Swallowing/ventilation interactions during oral swallow in normal children and children with cerebral palsy

Dysphagia. Winter 1994;9(1):40-6. doi: 10.1007/BF00262758.


Many children with cerebral palsy (CP) suffer from feeding disorders. Twenty children with spastic CP and 20 neurologically normal children (age range 6.2-12.9 years) were monitored with ultrasound imaging of the oral cavity synchronized with surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings of masseter and infrahyoid muscles and respiratory inductance plethysmograph (RIP) recordings during feeding tasks. A lip-cup contact detector signaled contact of the drinking cup on the lip during liquid tasks. Children with CP required more time than normals for collection and organization of 5 ml and 75 ml liquid boluses for swallowing. The ventilatory preparation phase, recovery to baseline resting ventilatory pattern after swallowing, and total time for task completion were longer in children with CP for 5-ml and 75-ml tasks. The interval from lip-cup contact until alteration of ventilation from baseline resting ventilatory pattern was longer for children with CP during 75-ml tasks but not for 5-ml tasks. The interval from completion of the task-related cookie swallow until initiation of the next swallow was longer in children with CP than in normal children. These data provide evidence that children with CP manage solid boluses more easily than liquid boluses and small liquid boluses more easily than large liquid boluses. This investigation statistically confirms empirically based recommendations that children with CP be allowed more time to complete feeding tasks and consume small volume drinks rather than large volume drinks.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cerebral Palsy / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebral Palsy / physiopathology*
  • Child
  • Deglutition / physiology*
  • Drinking / physiology
  • Electromyography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyoid Bone / diagnostic imaging
  • Hyoid Bone / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Masseter Muscle / physiopathology
  • Mastication / physiology
  • Mouth / diagnostic imaging
  • Mouth / physiology*
  • Muscle Hypertonia / physiopathology
  • Muscle Spasticity / physiopathology
  • Neck Muscles / physiopathology
  • Pharynx / diagnostic imaging
  • Pharynx / physiopathology
  • Plethysmography
  • Respiration / physiology*
  • Time Factors
  • Tongue / diagnostic imaging
  • Tongue / physiopathology
  • Ultrasonography
  • Videotape Recording