Long-term change in nonspecific and specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness was studied in 16 subjects with asthma induced by toluene diisocyanate (TDI). A significant positive correlation between months of follow-up and provocative dose inducing a 20 percent fall in FEV1 (PD20FEV1) methacholine was observed in 5 of 16 subjects. In 4 of these 5 subjects, a PD20FEV1 > 1 mg of methacholine was observed 30 to 48 months after the end of TDI exposure. In most subjects, nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness did not change. Nine of 16 subjects became nonresponsive to TDI at follow-up examination, but only 3 of these showed a significant increase in PD20FEV1 methacholine. Seven subjects were still responsive to TDI. Recovery from TDI-induced asthma can occur and only after long-term work cessation. Nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine can persist even in the absence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to TDI, suggesting permanent chronic damage to mechanisms controlling airway tone.