Characteristics of a community-based distribution of home blood pressure in Ohasama in northern Japan

J Hypertens. 1993 Dec;11(12):1441-9. doi: 10.1097/00004872-199312000-00017.


Objective: To evaluate the distribution, reference values and day-to-day variation of blood pressure of untreated subjects measured at home.

Design: Cross-sectional study of a cohort.

Setting: General community in northern Japan.

Subjects: Blood pressure was measured in 871 subjects (mean +/- SD age 46.0 +/- 19.5 years, range 7-98, constituting 38.7% of the local population of Uchikawama region, Ohasama) who were not receiving antihypertensive medication.

Methods: Subjects measured their own blood pressure at home at least three times (mean +/- SD 19.7 +/- 8.4) each morning using a semi-automatic oscillometric blood pressure measuring device. Screening blood pressure was measured once.

Main outcome measures: Distribution of home blood pressure in the study population as a whole and with respect to age and sex, and the distribution of day-to-day variation of home blood pressure were determined.

Results: Mean home blood pressure was 117.3 +/- 13.4/69.3 +/- 9.7 mmHg (95% confidence interval 116.4-118.2/68.7-70.0). The 95th centile value was 143/85 mmHg, mean+SD 131/79 mmHg and mean + 2SD 144/89 mmHg. Mean screening blood pressure was 126.2 +/- 18.9/72.1 +/- 11.7 mmHg (95th centile 159/92 mmHg). Age- and sex-specific 95th centile values as well as mean +/- SD were obtained. Mean+SD, mean + 2SD and the 95th centile values obtained as reference upper limits of home blood pressure from subjects identified as normotensive by screening blood pressure (n = 707) were 125/77, 137/86 and 134/83 mmHg, respectively. Home blood pressure increased gradually with increasing age in both men and women, although blood pressure was significantly higher in men until 50 years of age. Day-to-day variation of home systolic blood pressure also increased with age.

Conclusion: Since the distribution of home blood pressure values was affected by age and sex, age- and sex-matched reference values for home blood pressure should be established. Home blood pressure values in elderly subjects should be evaluated carefully, since these exhibit greater day-to-day variation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Ambulatory Care Facilities
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Blood Pressure Determination* / instrumentation
  • Blood Pressure Determination* / statistics & numerical data
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Male
  • Mass Screening
  • Middle Aged
  • Reference Values
  • Self Care