Alaska Native women historically have high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and invasive cervical cancer. Their prevalence of cervical infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) in relation to cervical dysplasia was determined with a commercial dot hybridization test for seven HPV genotypes. Type-specific HPV DNA, similarly distributed between genotype groups 16/18 and 31/33/35, was detected in 234 cervical specimens (21%) from 1126 Alaska Native women seeking routine care and colposcopy or from population-based lists. The prevalence of HPV DNA declined with age and increased with sexual activity and cigarette smoking. It was unrelated to use of oral contraceptives or condoms or to STDs. Relative risks associating HPV with increasing severe grades of cervical dysplasia increased markedly with HPV infection, up to 7.1 for high-risk genotypes 16/18 and 14.4 for coinfection with 31/33/35. These genotypes were detected in 8% of women without dysplasia seeking routine care. Screening for strain-specific HPV DNA may identify women at highest risk for cervical neoplasia.