We compared the postoperative anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac sodium 0.1% and dexamethasone phosphate 0.1% in a prospective, randomized, double-masked pilot study. Anterior chamber inflammation was evaluated by measuring aqueous flare and cells with a laser flare-cell meter at one, three, 12, 30, and 60 days after cataract surgery. Flare values in the two groups did not significantly differ at any time, nor did aqueous cell counts at one, three, 12, and 60 days after surgery. At 30 days, however, cell count was significantly lower in the diclofenac group. Diclofenac sodium seems to be as potent as dexamethasone phosphate, as good as anti-inflammatory agent, and may replace corticosteroid therapy after cataract surgery.