Edema toxin of Bacillus anthracis is composed of protective antigen (PA) and edema factor (EF), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. At least five different antigenic regions of EF were identified using a competitive-binding, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of paired monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Two mAbs, 9F5 and 7G10, inhibited the binding of 125I-EF to cell-bound PA. However, only 9F5 inhibited the elongation response of Chinese hamster ovary cells in the presence of edema toxin. Cleavage of EF at the two aspartic acid-proline residues by acid hydrolysis resulted in three fragments: a C-terminal 17 kDa fragment, a central 53 kDa fragment, and an N-terminal 18 kDa fragment. Immunoblots of EF cleaved by formic acid mapped mAbs 9F5 and 7G10 to the N-terminal 18 kDa fragment, mAb 1E6 to the C-terminal 17 kDa fragment, and the remaining 7 mAbs to the central 53 kDa fragment. mAbs 7G10 and 9F5 defined an antigenic region within amino acids 1-156 of EF which is involved in interaction with PA in forming edema toxin.