We studied 187 patients who presented with mild congenital aortic valve stenosis or a bicuspid aortic valve without stenosis at presentation; 63% were males. Information on all clinical events was obtained, and patients were traced to assess current clinical status.
Results: The median age at presentation was 2 years (range, 0-15). Additional cardiac lesions occurred in 51 patients, more commonly in patients presenting under 1 year of age (P < 0.0001). The median duration of follow-up was 10 years (range, 1-28); seven patients were lost to follow-up. Thirty-two patients progressed to require intervention (28 surgical, five balloon valvuloplasty) at a median age of 10.5 years. No patient who presented with a bicuspid aortic valve required intervention. Two patients developed endocarditis. There were eight deaths; four after surgery for aortic stenosis and four due to other cardiac lesions. There were no sudden deaths. Actuarial and hazard analysis showed that progression beyond mild stenosis was closely related to duration of follow-up.
Conclusions: Congenital aortic valve stenosis is most frequently mild at presentation. Progression is related to duration of follow-up. Fewer than 20% of patients are likely to still have mild stenosis after 30 years. Follow-up into adult life is essential.