An influenza A (H1N1) virus, closely related to swine influenza virus, responsible for a fatal case of human influenza

J Virol. 1994 Apr;68(4):2051-8. doi: 10.1128/JVI.68.4.2051-2058.1994.


In July 1991, an influenza A virus, designated A/Maryland/12/91 (A/MD), was isolated from the bronchial secretions of a 27-year-old animal caretaker. He had been admitted to the hospital with bilateral pneumonia and died of acute respiratory distress syndrome 13 days later. Antigenic analyses with postinfection ferret antisera and monoclonal antibodies to recent H1 swine hemagglutinins indicated that the hemagglutinin of this virus was antigenically related to, but distinguishable from, those of other influenza A (H1N1) viruses currently circulating in swine. Oligonucleotide mapping of total viral RNAs revealed differences between A/MD and other contemporary swine viruses. However, partial sequencing of each RNA segment of A/MD demonstrated that all segments were related to those of currently circulating swine viruses. Sequence analysis of the entire hemagglutinin, nucleoprotein, and matrix genes of A/MD revealed a high level of identity with other contemporary swine viruses. Our studies on A/MD emphasize that H1N1 viruses in pigs obviously continue to cross species barriers and infect humans.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Bronchi / microbiology
  • Cross Reactions
  • Genes, Viral / genetics
  • Genome, Viral
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype*
  • Influenza A virus / genetics*
  • Influenza A virus / immunology
  • Influenza A virus / pathogenicity
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human / microbiology*
  • Influenza, Human / mortality
  • Male
  • Maryland / epidemiology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nucleotide Mapping
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology
  • Pneumonia, Viral / microbiology
  • Pneumonia, Viral / mortality
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Swine