Pharmacokinetics of carboplatin were determined in a patient suffering from advanced ovarian cancer with total hemodialysis-dependent chronic renal failure undergoing 3 consecutive cycles of chemotherapy. Dosage was adjusted to reach active AUC (area under the plasma concentration versus time curve) of ultrafilterable carboplatin. A hemodialysis, performed 24 h after administration results in a decrease of 20% of ultrafilterable carboplatin AUC. The relative dialysis efficacy of ultrafilterable carboplatin was great: 84 +/- 3%. The chemotherapy regimen consisted of carboplatin-cyclophosphamide combination for 6 cycles every 4 weeks. After treatment completion, the patient showed a complete response and remains disease free 16 months after the end of the treatment. Carboplatin-based chemotherapy can be given to patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis without life-threatening toxicity with a dialysis performed 24 h after the administration and with a dose adjustment of carboplatin to reach a AUC of 6 mg/ml.min for untreated patients. In these conditions, response in platinum-sensitive tumors can be obtained.