Acute noradrenergic activation induces insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle

Am J Physiol. 1994 Feb;266(2 Pt 1):E242-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.1994.266.2.E242.


We assessed in normal subjects the effects of an acute increase in forearm norepinephrine (NE) release, evoked by -20 mmHg lower body negative pressure (LBNP), on insulin-mediated muscle glucose uptake. Seven normal subjects underwent the following two insulin euglycemic clamps in random sequence: one during application of LBNP and the other without LBNP (control study). In the control study, hyperinsulinemia (approximately 60 microU/ml) produced a significant increment in forearm NE release, measured by using the forearm perfusion technique combined with infusion of tritiated NE (from 4.91 +/- 1 to 7.94 +/- 1.33 ng.l-1.min-1; P < 0.05). Forearm glucose uptake rose from 0.97 +/- 0.13 to 5.2 +/- 0.2 mg.l-1.min-1 in response to insulin infusion. When the insulin clamp was performed during LBNP, forearm NE release rose to significantly higher values than those of the control study (from 4.33 +/- 0.52 to 12.7 +/- 1.46 ng.l-1.min-1; P < 0.01 vs. control). Under these conditions, the stimulatory effect of insulin on forearm glucose uptake was markedly reduced (from 0.78 +/- 0.10 to 3.2 +/- 0.7 mg.l-1.min-1; P < 0.02 vs. control). Forearm blood flow and plasma epinephrine and free fatty acid concentrations were comparable in the two study sessions. These data demonstrate that an acute activation of endogenous NE release antagonizes insulin-mediated glucose uptake in forearm skeletal muscle, probably accounted for by a direct metabolic effect of NE.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Forearm / blood supply
  • Glucose / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Glucose / pharmacokinetics
  • Humans
  • Insulin / pharmacology
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Lower Body Negative Pressure
  • Male
  • Muscles / metabolism
  • Muscles / physiology*
  • Norepinephrine / blood
  • Norepinephrine / pharmacokinetics
  • Norepinephrine / physiology*
  • Reference Values
  • Regional Blood Flow
  • Time Factors


  • Insulin
  • Glucose
  • Norepinephrine