Selenoprotein P was partially purified (> 1000-fold) from human plasma in four chromatographic steps using 75Se-labeled selenoprotein P secreted by HepG2 cells in culture as a marker. The purified preparation was injected into mice and monoclonal antibodies, which precipitated the labeled protein, were generated. Neither of two different monoclonal antibodies had cross-reactivity with plasma from five animal species. Antibodies were coupled to agarose, and selenoprotein P was purified from human plasma by immunoaffinity chromatography followed by chromatography on heparin agarose. With two different matrix-bound monoclonal antibodies, the purification procedure gave two bands on SDS-PAGE with mobilities corresponding to 61 and 55 kDa. Both bands stained for carbohydrate and showed increased electrophoretic mobility after enzymatic deglycosylation. Immunoaffinity chromatography removed approx. one-third of the selenium from plasma or 0.4 mumol Se/l at a total selenium concentration of 1.1 mumol/l, indicating that selenoprotein P constituted this proportion of total plasma selenium in healthy US blood donors.