TonB protein couples cytoplasmic membrane electrochemical potential to active transport of iron-siderophore complexes and vitamin B12 through high-affinity outer membrane receptors of Gram-negative bacteria. The mechanism of energy transduction remains to be determined, but important concepts have already begun to emerge. Consistent with its function, TonB is anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane by its uncleaved amino terminus while largely occupying the periplasm. Both the connection to the cytoplasmic membrane and the amino acid sequences of the anchor are essential for activity. TonB directly associates with a number of envelope proteins, among them the outer membrane receptors and cytoplasmic membrane protein ExbB. ExbB and TonB interact through their respective transmembrane domains. ExbB is proposed to recycle TonB to an active conformation following energy transduction to the outer membrane. TonB most likely associates with the outer membrane receptors through its carboxy terminus, which is required for function. In contrast, the novel proline-rich region of TonB can be deleted without affecting function. A model that incorporates this information, as well as tempered speculation, is presented.