Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and primary juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (PJFS) are illnesses with a similar pattern of symptoms of unknown etiology. Twenty-seven children for whom CFS was diagnosed were evaluated for fibromyalgia by the presence of widespread pain and multiple tender points. Eight children (29.6%) fulfilled criteria for fibromyalgia. Those children who met fibromyalgia criteria had a statistically greater degree of subjective muscle pain, sleep disturbance, and neurological symptoms than did those who did not meet the fibromyalgia criteria. There was no statistical difference between groups in degree of fatigue, headache, sore throat, abdominal pain, depression, lymph node pain, concentration difficulty, eye pain, and joint pain. CFS in children and PJFS appear to be overlapping clinical entities and may be indistinguishable by current diagnostic criteria.