Elevated blood pressure and craniofacial abnormalities in mice deficient in endothelin-1

Nature. 1994 Apr 21;368(6473):703-10. doi: 10.1038/368703a0.


The endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene was disrupted in mouse embryonic stem cells by homologous recombination to generate mice deficient in ET-1. These ET-1-/- homozygous mice die of respiratory failure at birth and have morphological abnormalities of the pharyngeal-arch-derived craniofacial tissues and organs. ET-1+/- heterozygous mice, which produce lower levels of ET-1 than wild-type mice, develop elevated blood pressure. These results suggest that ET-1 is essential for normal mouse development and may also play a physiological role in cardiovascular homeostasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Blood Pressure / genetics
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Branchial Region / abnormalities*
  • Branchial Region / embryology
  • DNA Primers
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development / genetics
  • Endothelins / deficiency
  • Endothelins / genetics
  • Endothelins / physiology*
  • Female
  • Heterozygote
  • Homozygote
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Organ Culture Techniques
  • Respiratory Insufficiency / genetics
  • Skull / abnormalities
  • Stem Cells


  • DNA Primers
  • Endothelins