Thirty-one patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum received liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) in a multi-centre study. Ten immunocompetent patients (six children) received 1-1.38 mg/kg/day for 21 days, and ten (nine children) received 3 mg/kg/day for 10 days. All were cured without significant adverse events and without relapse during 12-24 months of follow-up. Eleven immunocompromised adults, including seven co-infected with HIV (four with AIDS) received 100 mg (1.38-1.85 mg/kg) daily for 21 days. All were initially considered cured, but eight relapsed clinically and parasitologically at 3-22 months. Liposomal amphotericin B is a new, safe and effective drug for the treatment of VL.