Working muscle plays a central role in the control of lipid metabolism. Increased physical activity induces a number of positive changes in the metabolism of lipoproteins: serum triglycerides are lowered by the increased lipolytic activity and the production of native high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles is increased. The increased lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity leads to an increased production of HDL2, which in addition is catabolised more slowly due to a decreased activity of hepatic lipase. The 3 effects explain the increased HDL levels of endurance trained individuals. These effects have been demonstrated in cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies by different groups, and can be induced by training, independent of changes in bodyweight. The influence of endurance activity on the quality and quantity of low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles is a further reason for the antiatherogenic potential of increased physical activity. It has been shown by several groups that small dense LDL particles represent a particular risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recent studies presented strong evidence that LDL level and composition can be influenced favorably by physical activity. In addition to the direct influence of physical activity on lipids and lipoproteins, physical exercise may improve the disturbances of haemorheological factors, particularly those associated with hypertriglyceridaemia. In conclusion, there is increased evidence that physical activity is able to favourably influence all 3 components of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype: the HDL concentration increases, the concentration of small dense LDL decreases, and serum triglycerides are reduced.