A putative tumor suppressor locus on the short arm of human chromosome 9 has been localized to a region of less than 40 kilobases by means of homozygous deletions in melanoma cell lines. This region contained a gene, Multiple Tumor Suppressor 1 (MTS1), that encodes a previously identified inhibitor (p16) of cyclin-dependent kinase 4. MTS1 was homozygously deleted at high frequency in cell lines derived from tumors of lung, breast, brain, bone, skin, bladder, kidney, ovary, and lymphocyte. Melanoma cell lines that carried at least one copy of MTS1 frequently carried nonsense, missense, or frameshift mutations in the gene. These findings suggest that MTS1 mutations are involved in tumor formation in a wide range of tissues.