Education and myopia in 110,236 young Singaporean males

Singapore Med J. 1993 Dec;34(6):489-92.


Computerised data of 110,236 Singaporean males aged 15 to 25 (mean 17.75) years who underwent compulsory medical examination from April 1987 to January 1992 were used to estimate the prevalence and severity of myopia among young Chinese, Malay, Indian and Eurasian Singaporean males with different educational levels. The prevalence and severity of myopia amongst the groups with different educational levels were compared. These groups were fairly well-matched for important known confounding factors such as age, sex, race and degree of urbanisation of place of residence. Our data showed a positive association between educational attainment and both the prevalence and severity of myopia. Both the prevalence of myopia and the proportion of myopes with severe myopia were in general higher among those with more years of formal education.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • China / ethnology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Educational Status*
  • Humans
  • India / ethnology
  • Malaysia / ethnology
  • Male
  • Myopia / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Refraction, Ocular
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Singapore / epidemiology
  • Visual Acuity