In 8 years (1985-1992), 65 cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) have been diagnosed in the department of Alpes-Maritimes, France, 56 of them having been infected locally. The annual frequency has increased from 3 cases in 1985 to 15 cases in 1992. There is a low rate of paediatric cases (29%) and a predominance of males among adult cases (85%). Since 1986, 19 cases of co-infection with Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus 1 have been reported, corresponding to 40% of adult cases and to 30% of the total cases. The frequency of co-infections is stable at about 3 per annum. Isoenzymatic identification of the strains isolated from patients confirmed Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1 as responsible for most if not all HVL in the department of Alpes-Maritimes; 42 of the 44 strains isolated belonged to that zymodeme.