Infection stones in children: a twenty-seven-year review

Urology. 1994 Apr;43(4):525-7. doi: 10.1016/0090-4295(94)90247-x.


Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between urinary tract infection and pediatric urolithiasis and to characterize the pediatric infection stone former.

Methods: Two hundred seventy consecutive pediatric stone formers presenting over a twenty-seven-year period were studied. Of these, 161 children (60%) had infection-related stones. Account was taken of stone composition, anatomic location, associated anatomic lesions, and the rate of stone recurrence over a median follow-up of three years.

Results: The mean age of children with infection stones was 4.9 years, with two-thirds being under six years of age. Proteus mirabilis accounted for 82 percent of pure urine cultures. Seventy percent of stones were renal and 30 percent were ureteral or intravesical. One-third of patients had anatomic lesions (pelviureteric obstruction, primary obstructed megaureter, and others) contributing to stone formation. Recurrent stones occurred in 14 percent of cases.

Conclusions: This study reaffirms the predominance of urinary tract infection secondary to P. mirabilis as the leading cause of pediatric urolithiasis in the United Kingdom. The significant recurrence rate suggests the importance of prophylactic antibiotics, surgical correction of congenital anomalies, and long-term follow-up of this patient population.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Recurrence
  • Urinary Calculi / microbiology*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / complications*