Efficacy of lodoxamide 0.1% ophthalmic solution in resolving corneal epitheliopathy associated with vernal keratoconjunctivitis

Am J Ophthalmol. 1994 Apr 15;117(4):488-97. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(14)70009-1.


A multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group study compared the long-term efficacy and safety of lodoxamide 0.1% ophthalmic solution and placebo in 118 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. The test drugs were instilled four times daily for 90 days. Lodoxamide 0.1% ophthalmic solution was significantly (P < .05) more effective than placebo in lowering severity scores for epithelial disease and corneal staining, evidence of the superior efficacy of lodoxamide 0.1% ophthalmic solution in reversing the corneal complications commonly associated with moderate to severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Additionally, lodoxamide 0.1% ophthalmic solution ameliorated the other key signs of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, including upper tarsal papillae, limbal signs (papillae, hyperemia, and Trantas' dots), and conjunctival discharge. The between-group differences in the relief of symptoms (itching, tearing, and photophobia) were clinically significant but not always statistically significant. Treatment-related adverse events were reported with similar frequency in both treatment groups, and none were serious.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Conjunctivitis, Allergic / complications
  • Conjunctivitis, Allergic / drug therapy*
  • Corneal Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Corneal Diseases / etiology
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Oxamic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Oxamic Acid / adverse effects
  • Oxamic Acid / analogs & derivatives*


  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Oxamic Acid
  • lodoxamide ethyl