Cell seeding may decrease the thrombogenicity of implanted vascular grafts, but its application is hampered by the limited availability of autologous endothelial cells. Human peritoneal mesothelial cells have blood flow supporting qualities and are readily available. This study investigated the adherence of mesothelial cells to vascular prostheses and their subsequent growth in vitro. Circular pieces of various vascular prosthetic materials were seeded with 51Chromium-labeled mesothelial and endothelial cells and left for either 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. The unattached cells were removed and the degree of cell attachment was measured. The number of mesothelial cells to Dacron increased during the first 60 min up to 35.2% of the seeded inoculum whereafter a plateau was reached. Scanning electron microscopy showed spread mesothelial cells adherent to the Dacron fibers. A significant increase in adherence was observed after preincubation of Dacron with 10 micrograms/mL fibronectin, but no improvement was found after preincubation with human serum albumin or gelatin. Mesothelial cells adhered better to Gel-coated than to Gel-sealed or plain Dacron. The adherence of mesothelial cells to ePTFE (Teflon) was significantly poorer. No significant differences in adherence were found between mesothelial and endothelial cells. Mesothelial cell growth on Dacron resulted in a modest increase in the number of viable cells during 27 days, which implies biocompatibility of Dacron and mesothelial cells in vitro.