Mutations of Ki-ras oncogene codon 12 in betel quid chewing-related human oral squamous cell carcinoma in Taiwan

J Oral Pathol Med. 1994 Feb;23(2):70-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.1994.tb00259.x.


In Taiwan, there are two million people who have a betel quid chewing habit, and approximately 80% of all oral cancer deaths are associated with this habit. To investigate the incidence and types of Ki-ras codon 12 mutations in oral cancer associated with betel quid chewing, we used a sensitive mutation-specific two-stage polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to examine human oral squamous cell carcinomas from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. DNA sequence analysis of PCR products revealed that 6 of 33 (18%) tumour specimens contained Ki-ras codon 12 mutations. Four of the tumours contained more than one mutation. Three different base changes were detected, resulting from a substitution of wild type glycine (GGT) to either serine (AGT), aspartic acid (GAT) or cysteine (TAT). These results indicate that Ki-ras oncogene activation may play a role in the oncogenesis of betel quid chewing-related human oral squamous cell carcinomas.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Areca*
  • Base Sequence
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics*
  • Codon
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • DNA, Neoplasm / genetics
  • Genes, ras / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mouth Mucosa / pathology
  • Mouth Neoplasms / etiology
  • Mouth Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Mutation*
  • Plants, Medicinal*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Substance-Related Disorders / complications


  • Codon
  • DNA, Neoplasm