The prevalence of moderate and severe FXII (Hageman factor) deficiency among the normal population: evaluation of the incidence of FXII deficiency among 300 healthy blood donors

Thromb Haemost. 1994 Jan;71(1):68-72.


Factor XII (FXII) deficiency has been reported to be a risk factor for the development of arterial and venous thromboembolism. However, no data are available on the prevalence of FXII deficiency within the normal population. Measuring APTT and FXII activity, seven FXII deficiencies could be detected among 300 healthy blood donors. This corresponds to an incidence of FXII deficiency of 2.3%. On the basis of these data the prevalence of severe and mild FXII deficiency in the normal population can be estimated to be 1.5-3.0%. Assessment of FXII antigen levels revealed, that all seven FXII deficient individuals had FXII antigen levels matching the activity. One presented a severe FXII deficiency (1/300, 0.3%) without detectable FXII activity and an APTT prolongation of more than 120 s. The remaining six FXII deficiencies (6/300, 2.0%) were moderate variations with FXII activities ranging from 20-45% and less prolonged APTTs. Among the 300 healthy donors 16 (5.3%) subjects with prolonged APTTs were identified. Causes for APTT-prolongation were FXII deficiency (7/16), lupus anticoagulant (6/16), mild FVIII deficiency (1/16) and hepatic disorder (1/16). In the remaining sample (1/16) the cause for the prolongation of the APTT remained unexplained. Although 8.7% (26/300) of the donors had a positive family-history of thromboembolism (TE-FHx), none of the FXII deficient subjects were among those with positive TE-FHx.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Austria / epidemiology
  • Blood Donors
  • Factor XII / analysis
  • Factor XII Deficiency / epidemiology*
  • Factor XII Deficiency / etiology
  • Female
  • Hemophilia A / complications
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Liver Diseases / complications
  • Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor / analysis
  • Male
  • Partial Thromboplastin Time
  • Prevalence


  • Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor
  • Factor XII