Risk factors for renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. I. Role of socioeconomic status, tobacco use, beverages, and family history

Cancer Causes Control. 1994 Mar;5(2):105-13. doi: 10.1007/BF01830256.


Risk factors for renal cell carcinoma were examined in a population based case-control study in Denmark. A total of 368 cases and 396 age- and gender-matched controls were interviewed in their homes. Increased risk was associated with low socioeconomic status. For men, an increasing risk with decreasing socioeconomic status was seen (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-4.6 for men in the lowest socioeconomic stratum cf the highest). For women, the risk was lower in the highest socioeconomic stratum compared with the rest (OR = 2.4, CI = 0.9-5.9 for the lowest strata cf the highest). Cigarette smoking was a risk factor in men with an OR = 2.3 (CI = 1.1-5.1) for cigarette smokers with a total consumption of more than 40 pack-years compared with nonsmokers. Family history of kidney cancer was associated with an increased risk in both genders (for men, OR = 4.1, CI = 1.1-14.9; for women, OR = 4.8, CI = 1.0-23). Observations were inconsistent regarding coffee and alcohol consumption, and we found no association with tea drinking. The association with socioeconomic status remained after adjustment for other factors.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alcoholic Beverages / statistics & numerical data
  • Beverages / statistics & numerical data*
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology*
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Coffee
  • Denmark / epidemiology
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Population Surveillance
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Social Class*
  • Tea


  • Coffee
  • Tea