Protozoal concentrations were determined in rumen and cecal contents of 20 blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Ten animals of each sex were fed either a high concentrate or high roughage diet. Rumen protozoa were present in 19 of the 20 animals and concentrations ranged from 4.5 to 33.7 x 10(6) per g of rumen contents. At the higher concentrations, protozoal cells equaled between 30-40% of the total rumen contents volume. No protozoa were found in cecal contents. Weight of rumen contents was higher in females than in males (P < 0.01), and rumen protozoa concentrations were higher in males (P < 0.05) and in those animals fed the high concentrate diet (P < 0.05). All the protozoa were identified as belonging to a single species, Entodinium dubardi. However, an average of about 30% of the E. dubardi cells varied from the typical morphology of this species. These cells appeared to be on variation lines leading toward 7-10 other non-caudate species of Entodinium. The present data were used to evaluate and discuss the concept of variation lines within E. dubardi.