Oral communication skills of children who are hard of hearing

J Speech Hear Res. 1994 Feb;37(1):216-26. doi: 10.1044/jshr.3701.216.


Forty children with mild to severe hearing losses were administered a battery of speech and language tasks. The children's speech was characterized by misarticulation of affricates and fricatives, mild-moderate hoarseness, mild resonance problems, and good intelligibility. Their language samples included syntactic errors, primarily involving the use of bound morphemes and complex sentence structures. The children's pragmatic errors consisted primarily of providing inadequate or ambiguous information to the listener. These results indicate a consistent pattern of oral communication behavior that reflects the reduction of acoustic input that they experience.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Articulation Disorders / diagnosis
  • Articulation Disorders / etiology*
  • Audiometry
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Hearing Disorders / complications*
  • Hearing Disorders / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Language Disorders / diagnosis
  • Language Disorders / etiology
  • Language Tests
  • Phonetics
  • Speech Intelligibility
  • Speech Production Measurement
  • Voice