We describe a case of arteritis involving the superficial temporal artery in an 8-year-old boy. After a 2-week prodrome of headache in the right temporal region, a painful pulsatile 6-mm nodule developed. No history of trauma or systemic disease was noted. The differential diagnosis included vasculitis or thrombosis of a vascular malformation of the temporal artery. The lesion was surgically excised for both diagnostic and cosmetic reasons. Histologic features of the nodule were diagnostic of juvenile temporal arteritis and characterized by non-giant cell granulomatous inflammation of the temporal artery, occlusive fibrous intimal proliferation, and microaneurysmal disruption of the media. At 12-month follow-up, the patient was well; no recurrent lesions or systemic disease was noted. Although rare, this disease should be recognized as arteritis that affects the external carotid circulation and should not be confused with classic giant cell temporal arteritis. If physicians are aware of this benign inflammatory disease of the temporal artery in children and young adults, unnecessary treatment will not be administered.