Central and regional blood flow during hyperventilation. An experimental study in the pig

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1994 Feb;38(2):180-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-6576.1994.tb03863.x.


Mechanical hyperventilation not only reduces brain oedema after neurotrauma but also affects the central and systemic circulation. We have, in pigs, measured blood flow in the pulmonary artery, the portal vein and in the femoral artery, as well as estimated the splanchnic blood flow and studied the relative perfusion using the microsphere technique in normo- and hypocarbia during intermittent positive pressure ventilation. A normoventilated control group did not change in cardiac output, portal vein blood flow, splanchnic blood flow and femoral arterial blood flow. Hyperventilation was performed to a PCO2 of 3.0 +/- 0.1 kPa. We found that in pigs ventilated with high tidal volume skeletal muscle blood flow did not change during the first 60 min of hyperventilation but gradually decreased thereafter. Blood flow to the cerebellum decreased soon after the induction of hyperventilation, whereas the cerebral blood flow did not decrease until the second hour of hyperventilation. Cardiac output, splanchnic perfusion and portal vein blood flow all decreased. Myocardial perfusion and arterial blood flow to spleen and kidney decreased while pancreatic and liver arterial blood flows were unaffected. It is concluded that mechanical hyperventilation with low frequency and large tidal volumes reduces the flow to most tissues, where the relative decrease according to microsphere measurements is most pronounced in skeletal muscles, heart muscle and cerebellum. However, the changes in cardiac output and splanchnic blood flow were not observed when hyperventilation was induced by increased frequency, keeping the tidal volume constant.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Circulation / physiology*
  • Cardiac Output / physiology*
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology
  • Coronary Circulation / physiology
  • Female
  • Femoral Artery / physiopathology
  • Hyperventilation / physiopathology*
  • Hypocapnia / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Muscles / blood supply
  • Portal Vein / physiopathology
  • Pulmonary Artery / physiopathology
  • Regional Blood Flow / physiology
  • Renal Circulation / physiology
  • Splanchnic Circulation / physiology
  • Swine
  • Vascular Resistance / physiology
  • Ventricular Function, Right / physiology