This article reviews the evidence that the nodular form of lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease ("nodular paragranuloma") should be recognised as a distinct clinico-pathological entity. The disease is characterised histologically by very large primary lymphoid follicles, containing polytypic small B lymphocytes and extensive meshworks of follicular dendritic cells. The "L and H" or "popcorn" cells scattered within the nodules show clear differences from classical Reed-Sternberg cells, both in their cytological appearance and in their marker profile, being frequently negative for CD15 and for the EBV genome, but often positive for B cell antigens, CD45 (leucocyte common antigen), CDw75 (LN1), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and J chain. These findings suggest that L and H cells may be Ig-synthesising monoclonal B cells. Nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease pursues a much more indolent courses that classical Hodgkin's disease, and long term survival is common. It has other distinctive clinical features, e.g. a unimodal age distribution, a predilection to involve single lymph nodes, and a very low incidence of thymic involvement. There is a tendency for diffuse large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, usually of B cell type, to develop during the course of the disease. This type of Hodgkin's disease thus has many features that distinguish it from the nodular sclerosis and mixed cellularity varieties, and it is hoped that future studies will gather more information on its clinical behavior and on the nature of the putative neoplastic cells, as well as exploring different protocols for its treatment.