Pharmacological and non-pharmacological smoking motives: a replication and extension

Addiction. 1994 Mar;89(3):321-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1994.tb00899.x.


Cigarette smokers (n = 387) completed a questionnaire measure of smoking motives, and subgroups of this sample provided external validation information. Seven factors emerged from a principal components' analysis: automatic, sedative, addictive, stimulation, psychosocial, indulgent and sensorimotor manipulation. A higher-order principal components analysis revealed the presence of two second-order factors. Inspection of the pattern of correlations between factor scores and criterion variables clearly indicated that the first four factors above and their underlying second-order factor are more closely related to nicotine pharmacology and mood-altering effects of nicotine than the latter three motives and their underlying second-order factor. Moreover, the positive correlations between these pharmacological motives and age, coupled with a negative relationship between age and the non-pharmacological motives, support the description of the smoking career as a progressive transfer of reward from non-pharmacological to pharmacological factors. These findings suggest that self-reported reasons for smoking represent more than bias in verbal report.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Affect / drug effects
  • Affect / physiology
  • Arousal / drug effects*
  • Arousal / physiology
  • Cotinine / pharmacokinetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivation*
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage*
  • Nicotine / pharmacokinetics
  • Personality Assessment / statistics & numerical data
  • Psychometrics
  • Smoking / physiopathology
  • Smoking / psychology*


  • Nicotine
  • Cotinine