The Development of a Cocaine Craving Questionnaire

Drug Alcohol Depend. 1993 Dec;34(1):19-28. doi: 10.1016/0376-8716(93)90042-o.


Two versions of a 45-item questionnaire on cocaine craving were administered to 225 cocaine users. The Now version asked about current craving for cocaine, and the General version asked about average craving over the preceding week. Factor analyses showed that a four-factor solution best described the item structure for both versions of the questionnaire. Higher-order analyses indicated that each version was permeated by a single second-order factor. Factor scales derived for each primary and second-order factor had moderate to high reliabilities. Examination of item content, correlations of factors across versions, and external correlates of the factors suggested that both versions were represented by the same hierarchical factor structure. The theoretical and clinical implications of the results from these craving instruments are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cocaine / adverse effects*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neurologic Examination / statistics & numerical data*
  • Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / psychology
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology
  • Substance-Related Disorders / rehabilitation*


  • Cocaine