Betulinic acid  and platanic acid , isolated from the leaves of Syzigium claviforum, were found to be inhibitors of HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte cells. Evaluation of anti-HIV activity with eight derivatives of 1 revealed that dihydrobetulinic acid  was also a potent inhibitor of HIV replication. The C-3 hydroxy group and C-17 carboxylic acid group, as well as the C-19 substituents, contribute to enhanced anti-HIV activity. The inhibitory activity of these compounds against protein kinase C (PKC) was also examined, since a correlation between anti-HIV and anti-PKC activities has been suggested. However, there was no apparent correlation between anti-HIV activity and the inhibition of PKC among these compounds.