In a prospective clinical investigation of 20 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), neurological complications, not attributable to other diseases were detected in 14 patients (= 70%). Dysfunction of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) was nearly twice as frequent as central nervous system (CNS) complications. PNS involvement was dominated by symmetric sensory neuropathies, carpal tunnel syndromes, cranial nerve palsies (above all trigeminal sensory neuropathy) and pupillary dysfunction. CNS impairment was represented by cortical atrophy (n = 4), hemiparesis (n = 1) and aseptic meningitis (n = 1). Though CNS complications were rare, psychometric testing revealed diminished cognitive capacity in 14 patients. In addition to the characteristic sicca syndrome patients suffered from musculoskeletal pain and recurring abnormal sensation which frequently lead to the misdiagnosis of functional disorders. Additionally the frequent occurrence of psychiatric symptoms such as nervosity and depression support the impression of a psychosomatic pattern with no organic basis.