Endobronchial lesions in HIV-infected individuals

Chest. 1994 May;105(5):1314-23. doi: 10.1378/chest.105.5.1314.


Endobronchial manifestations of HIV infection are rare. The endobronchial appearance and clinical presentation of these lesions may suggest the correct diagnosis. Establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis at the time of visualization of the endobronchial lesion is important because some lesions require specific biopsy techniques or special stains. The bronchoscopist must consider the risks vs benefits of biopsy when confronted with an endobronchial lesion. With the notable exception of pseudomembranous necrotizing tracheobronchial aspergillosis, there are no specific endobronchial lesions associated with HIV infection which increase the risk of complications when they are biopsied. Although EKS is a vascular lesion and an early case report suggested that endobronchial biopsy might result in excessive bleeding, this complication was not observed in two subsequent series. Fortunately, a presumptive diagnosis of EKS can usually be made without biopsy by the characteristic appearance of the lesions. EKS is the most common endobronchial lesion associated with HIV infection; however, its incidence will probably decline as the incidence of KS declines. Many of the other endobronchial lesions described herein have been reported recently. We suspect these and other lesions will be found more frequently, as the epidemic of HIV continues to evolve.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis
  • Aspergillosis / complications
  • Aspergillosis / diagnosis
  • Bronchial Diseases / complications*
  • Bronchial Diseases / diagnosis
  • Bronchial Neoplasms / complications
  • Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / complications
  • Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis
  • Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology
  • Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications
  • Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis